smss.exe is one of the many processes that runs behind the scenes on Microsoft Windows operating systems such as XP and Vista. SMSS stands for Session Manager SubSystem, the program that is in control of handling all of the sessions that are active on a users computer. Unlike many of the behind the scenes processes found on Windows, smss.exe is a required process and should not be quit.What does the Session Manager Subsystem actually do?The smss.exe application is responsible for the control of many Windows related activities as they pertain to the end user. smss.exe starts up when Windows does, as it is immediately required for starting each users session. Furthermore, the smss.exe application also sets the operating systems variables as well as launches Winlogon, the program that handles many startup procedures for the Windows operating system.What happens if smss.exe quits or fails to load?If smss.exe fails to load, Windows will not start. Sometimes this problem may require a reboot into safe mode to see where the issue lies. Other times, it can be a problem with an improper shutdown, requiring the user to simply attempt another reboot and hope for the best.If smss.exe is quit while Windows is running, the system may freeze, requiring a hard reboot.Where is smss.exe located?The application for smss.exe is always located in the C:\Windows\System32 folder under Windows XP systems.What if smss.exe is located elsewhere?If you find that there is another smss.exe that is running from another folder, chances are that it is a trojan, a type of virus. There are several types of malware that masquerade as smss.exe because it is a common system process that users are unlikely to detect. However, a quick examination of your running processes and their locations is an easy way to determine if you are infected by an smss.exe type malware.In the event that you are infected with a smss.exe virus, attempt to terminate the rogue smss.exe application and remove it from your system. This may require booting into safe mode and manually removing it, or your anti-virus program may be able to do the job for you. Furthermore, if the smss.exe is serious, there may be a Windows update that is designed to remove or patch the exploit that the virus is currently taking advantage of.
Flow control is done through a mechanism that will control the amount of flow of data in a network. It is done under defined conditions and is the opposite of congestion control which is used when congestion has happened. There are two types, open loop flow control and closed loop flow control.The difference in these is simple. Open loop flow control mechanism is used when there is no feedback between the transmitter and receiver. In fact this is the most popular means used. In closed loop flow control, the mechanism has the ability to report pending network congestions back and forth to the transmitter. It can adapt its activity to the network conditions.As mentioned, open loop flow is the most commonly used mechanism. But, it does have some problems as well. It has trouble when it comes to maximizing the use of ATM network resources. You will find that there is an over allocation of resources in this type of flow control. Nevertheless, this type of flow control is used thoroughly by CBR, VBR, and UBR services.Why is any of this important? Well, consider the advancements of technology and you know that there is always something new and more powerful. But, in this case, we are talking about the device that sends and the device that will receive. When the sending device is capable of sending more data than the receiving device can handle, it is necessary to use flow control to help in this. So, it is a necessary mechanism to have and utilize properly.There are many information portals now devoted to the subject and we recommend reading about it at one of these. Try googling for flow control info and you will be surprised by the abundance of information on the subject. Alternatively you may try looking on Yahoo, MSN or even a decent directory site, all are good sources of this information.
Ethernet is the single most widely used form of the local area network currently in existence. The original design for Ethernet was created by Xerox, and was based on an earlier design that was known as Alohanet. After the initial creation and success of Ethernet, the product went through further enhancement under the auspices of Xerox, Intel, and DEC. How Did Ethernet Get Its Name?Robert Metcalfe, who was one of the developers working on the original design, came up with the name. The designation is based on the idea of light transmitting ether that was at one time thought to be found throughout the universe as a main component of the spread of light. Because cabling also functions as a medium that is somewhat passive, the correlation with ether seemed like a good fit. How Does Ethernet Work?Ethernet usually makes use of twisted pair wires or coaxial cable in the basic design of a wired local area network. However, the same general principle applies to wireless Ethernet as well. Various devices are connected to the cable or wires and achieve connectivity to Ethernet through Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. In general, Ethernet systems are referred to as 10BASE-T and are capable of producing speeds of up to 10 Mbps. What Are Some Types of Ethernet?Along with the standard 10BASE-T, there is also today what is known as Fast Ethernet. Properly designated as 100BASE-T, this form of Ethernet is capable of producing transmission speeds that are up to one hundred megabits per second. Generally, Fast Ethernet is used as a backbone for the LAN system, with the 10BASE-T cards used for the workstations that are supported by the LAN. Gigabit Ethernet takes the process one step further. This form of Ethernet will provide up to one thousand megabits per second and is an excellent option for large networks that require a great deal of support to manage local and remote work stations.10-Gigabit Ethernet provides the greatest power currently available. This type of Ethernet offers up to ten billion bits per second, making it the fastest version currently available.
Computer recycling refers to the practice of salvaging useable components from obsolete electronic devices or safely disposing off electronic devices. It is a practice that each one of us must inculcate because inappropriate handling of discarded computers and other electronic devices can cause environmental hazards.Studies estimate that over 40 million electronic pieces become obsolete annually. These pieces have constituents such as lead, cadmium, barium, and mercury, which are hazardous to the environment. In a landfill, these materials seep into the ground and then into our food and water supplies. This can cause serious health concerns over a long period.Obsolete Computers: Environmental ThreatsObsolete computers that are simply dumped in the garbage drums are the biggest threat to the environment. The computer monitors have cathode ray tubes containing four to five pounds of lead that contaminates the environment acutely. Besides lead, the computers have many other hazardous elements such as mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium. When inhaled over a long period, these elements cause high blood pressure, liver and nerve disease, blood with poor iron, and even brain damage to the exposed group. This causes great concern, considering several million computers become obsolete annually.Therefore, we must handle the obsolete electronic devices carefully. Moreover, different Environmental Laws have banned the illegal landfills by the disposals of computers and other electronic equipment. These laws necessitate sending the un-functional computers to a reputable recycler for harmless recycling. The laws also specify the need for regular recycling to avoid such computers from piling up.There are several methods to deal with old computers. Some of them are as follows: Give It For Reuse: If your computer is in a decent condition, you can sell it to a company or an individual so that it can be used further, or simply donate it to someone needy. Trade It In: There are many computer dealers (e.g. HP) who offer trade-in promotions on computers and peripherals. Auction It: You can sell the computer on eBay or any other auction site. You can also organize a quick garage sale and see if any of your friends or neighbors wants the computer. Set up a Server: You can continue using the old computer as a server to store and share data. Salvage Some Parts: You can see which parts of your computers are in good working condition. You can salvage those parts and use them in your new computer.Go for computer recycling and safe the planet earth!
Texas Holdem has become such a popular Game that most tournaments now days are Texas Holdem games, and there are even 2 or 3 television shows dedicated to the game. Texas Holdem is a 5 card poker game, but instead of each layer being dealt 7 cards, the dealer deals 5 cards in the center of the table, these cards are used by all the players to make the best hand possible. To make your hand each player is also dealt 2 cards and the object is to use the cards in your hand and the ones on the table to make the best hand you can. There are 5 rounds of Texas Holdem Poker and they are:The Pre-FlopThe FlopThe turn The RiverThe ShowdownDuring a Texas Holdem game between each round there is a round of betting, and is when players with bad hands may fold. In the game of Texas Holdem the first round is the pre flop. During this round the big and the small blinds place their bets, the big and small blinds are the first two players to the dealers left. Before the players are allowed to look at their cards the small blind must place a bet of half the table minimum and the next player who is the big blind must place a bet of the table minimum and then the dealer gives each player their hole cards. The hold cards is the name of the 2 cards each player has that are exclusively theirs, these cards guarantee that each player has a chance to make a better hand then the other players, without them all you would have is the 5 communal cards. In Texas Holdem the next round is the flop. This is when the dealer deals out the first 3 of the 5 communal cards. It is during this round that most players will fold; betting in this round is usually very conservative because 2 more cards are still needed and betting big on the chances that the cards you need are the ones that will appear is taking a big chance with your money, one that can coast you to bust out of the game early.The third round is called the turn. The turn is when the dealer puts out the 4th communal card. At this point you can get a good idea of your chances of getting a winning hand and now is when the betting starts to heat up, and more people will drop out of the game.The river is the last of the 5 cards to be turned over by the dealer. At this point all the cards available to make the hands have been put out, this is also the last time to bet before turning over the cards.The last round of Texas Holdem is the showdown, this is when all players turn over their cards and a winner is declared.You now have all the information you need to start playing Texas Holdem.